Bridget White Anglo-Indian Recipe Books

Bridget White Anglo-Indian Recipe Books


All the recipes and Photographs on this Site are old Family Recipes and tried and tested by the Author. Please feel free to try out these old recipes, and relish them, but desist from copying and using on other sites without the prior permission of Bridget White-Kumar. Any infringement would amount to Plagiarism and infringement of Copy Right punishable by Law

Friday, August 18, 2017


It's been an awesome and amazing experience being part of the Colonial Anglo-Indian Food Promotion Event #thememsahibskitchen at K3, J W Marriott Hotel New Delhi Aerocity. 
Thank you so much J W Marriott Hotel for giving me the privilege of recreating and bringing back to life old forgotten foods and simple dishes of yore that were innovated and invented by the khansamas and cooks in those early days of the Colonial period. 

The rustic and robust flavours of dishes that were served by the cooks at the Dak Bungalows and Inspection Bungalows to the British Officers while on their official tours across the country such as the Dak Bungalow Chicken Curry and fry. 
The delicious Railway Lamb and Vegetable Curries that were first served on the Great Indian Peninsular Railway also known as The Blue Train that began its three day journey from Bombay’s Victoria Rail Terminus to Calcutta via Allahabad for the first time on 7th March 1870 covering a total distance of almost 4000 miles. 
Then the East India Company legacies of lamb chops, Bread and Butter pudding, Roly Poly Jam Pudding and steamed ginger pudding, besides other dishes associated with British colonial cooking such as Kedegeree (the anglicised version of kichidi, a rice dish cooked with pulses then mixed with quartered hard boiled eggs), Rissoles, Potato Chops and Pantras, Cutlets and Croquettes.
The Portuguese legacies of Vindaloo and Tangy Curries and Sweets, the Dutch Fish and lamb Mince Friccadels and not forgetting the other old dishes such as Grandma's Country Captain Chicken, lamb Mince Ball (Kofta) Curry, Saffron Coconut Rice, Anglo-Indian Tomato Pilaf, etc. 

Thank you  J W Marriot Hotel New Delhi Aerocity, Executive Chef Vikram Bhatt, Executive Sous Chef Ishika, Mr Rohit Sharma and Mr Nikhil Nair for this wonderful opportunity. 

My special thanks to the wonderful team of Chef Kamal Sen, Hardik Narang, Akanksha Dean, Hitesh and others who were so eager to learn this new cuisine and recreate these old dishes for the festival. God bless you all. 
#memsahibskitchen #K3 #JWMarriotHotelNewDelhiAerocity

Thursday, July 27, 2017


The Cornish “Pasty” as the name suggests originated in Cornwall and was brought to Indian during the time of the Raj by the Cornish Miners and soldiers.  It was a popular baked dish in the olden days.
Cornish Pasties are baked Pastries shaped like a ‘D’ and crimped on the sides. It typically has a filling of small chunks of meat either beef or lamb potatoes and onions with a light seasoning of salt and pepper. The uncooked filling is placed on one half of a flat circle of pastry and the pastry is then folded in half to wrap the filling in a semi circle. The edges are sealed and crimped and then the Pasty is baked to a golden brown. The filling inside the Pasty, automatically cooks as well.  These Pasties could be served as a meal with a few sautéed veggies or as Party Eats or Snacks. Good for picnics too.
These pasties were very much a part and parcel of our lives as children in Kolar Gold Fields.
Serves 6      Time Required: 2 hours (including baking)

Ingredients for the Filling:
4 medium size potatoes peeled and cut into small cubes
2 onions chopped
½ kg beef from the round portion (or mutton) chopped into very small bits
2 teaspoons pepper
½ teaspoon chillie powder (optional )
 Salt to taste
1 tablespoon chopped mint

Ingredients for the Pie Crust Dough
3 cups flour
3 tablespoons oil
2 teaspoons butter
½ cup water or just enough to make a soft dough

Heat a suitable pan and lightly fry the potatoes, chopped onions, mint, meat, chillie powder, salt and pepper together with a little oil on low heat for about 5 to 6 minutes. Keep aside. This is the filling for the Pasties.

Make the dough crust, mix the flour and oil and just enough water to make a soft pie crust dough.
Roll out dough into 6 equal circles using a saucer to cut them.
In the center of each circle spoon in the filling utilizing all the filling for the 6 Pasties.
Put a tablespoon of butter over each mound of filling.
Fold the circle over and crimp the edges.
Pre heat the oven to 150° C.
Place the pasties on a cookie sheet and poke with a fork or make a slit on the top of each.
Glaze the pasties with beaten egg.

Bake for about 1hour till done or till a tooth pick comes out clean.

Thursday, July 20, 2017


A lovely feature by Divya Chandra on my recent Culinary Workshop in Coimbatore in THE HINDU dated 20/07/2017
THE HINDU 20/07/2017FOOD 
Reminiscing and recreating heritage…/award-winning…/article19315262.ece 
JULY 20, 2017 14:57 IST 
Award-winning cookbook writer Bridget White Kumar took her audience on an informative and mouthwatering tour of Anglo-Indian cuisine 
Bridget White Kumar, an expert on Anglo-Indian cuisine and an award-winning author, was recently in town to curate and develop a menu for an upcoming property of VM Hospitality. A handful of us were lucky enough to dine on some of the sumptuous dishes cooked by her during the process and also get an introduction to Anglo-Indian food.
“In terms of cuisine, besides British and Indian heritage, Anglo-Indian also includes those with Portuguese, French or Dutch heritage. The Portuguese have contributed a lot to the culinary landscape of India. They are the ones who brought vinegar, coriander, tomatoes, potatoes and chillies to India. And in exchange we gave them pepper and other spices”, remarked Kumar. Vindaloo from Goa is a fine example of Portuguese involvement, with a heavy dose of vinegar in it.
Our meal started with the Dak Bungalow Dry Chicken, which is a throwback to the days of the traveller’s bungalows along postal routes in the north of India. Although some of the dishes looked fiery red, they were mildly spiced and easy on the stomach. “We use spices very judiciously. The number of ingredients in a dish is kept minimal so that the diner can taste every ingredient individually. Our dishes are simple and my recipes are easy to follow,” said Kumar. 
In the last decade or so, Anglo-Indian restaurants have been popping up in the big metros in India. “In 2004, I published my first book. Now I have six books in total. On popular demand, I have also published a book with only vegetarian recipes. Anglo-Indians living around the world are buying my books to recreate fond memories from their childhoods”, said a beaming Kumar, who is happy to be part of this revival movement. She is striving to preserve an important element in the heritage of the Anglo-Indian community, for future generations to reminisce, appreciate and recreate.
“I work with club chefs to prepare roasts and puddings during the Christmas season in Bangalore,” noted Kumar. The old clubs that were started during the British period still hold on to their tradition of sit-down dinners, served with fine cutlery and crockery and a continental menu tweaked to Indian taste buds. 
The Railway Mutton Curry is a signature dish. “Many Anglo-Indians worked as pilots and guards on trains in colonial times. The meat was cooked with extra spices and vinegar so that it would last longer as they spent long hours on the line and hence the name Railway Curry”, explained Kumar. Cutlets and croquettes are also popular. 
Many of the names of Anglo-Indian dishes have an interesting history. The name Bad Word Curry was born since some of traditionalists refused to use the word ‘Ball’ in Ball Curry! A dish with lady’s finger is called Bandecoy, derived from the Kannada and Telugu words for Lady’s Finger: Bendekai. The famed Mulligatawny Soup derives its name from the Tamil term Milagu Thanni. 
We were also served Devil’s Chutney that looked bright red and fiery but was in fact sweet, tangy and only mildly hot. Devil’s Chutney is made by puréeing raisins along with vinegar and chilli. 
The final plate that arrived was a light and buttery Bread Pudding with a generous topping of shaved almonds and roasted raisins. It was among one of the best bread puddings I have ever tasted. 
The afternoon ended with Kumar signing my copy of her international award-winning cookbook, Anglo-Indian Cuisine: A legacy of flavours from the past.


Parsley Butter Rice
(A simple Rice Dish seasoned with Butter and fresh parsley. It goes well with any Curry or Side Dish) )

2 cups cooked rice, (Basmati)
2 tablespoons butter,
1 teaspoon ground pepper,
Salt to taste,
2 onions chopped finely
1 teaspoon chopped garlic
2 tablespoons fresh chopped parsley

Heat the butter in a pan and sauté the onions and chopped garlic till golden brown.
Add the cooked rice, chopped parsley, salt and pepper and mix well. Remove from hat and keep covered to allow the rice to draw in the flavours
Garnish with fried onions if desired.

Serve with any curry and side dish 

Friday, July 7, 2017


(A simple tasty and appetizing chicken fry that took its origins in the Dak Bungalows or Guest Houses on the Dak Route (Postal Route) during the days of the British Raj. For those who do not know what a ‘Dak Bungalow’ is, it was simply a ‘Traveler’s Rest House in the Indian subcontinent, during the days of the British Raj, originally on a Dak Route. Dak was a system of mail delivery or passenger movement, transported by relays of bearers or horses stationed at intervals along a particular route and these Rest Houses were established or built at various places along the route. These Traveller’s Bungalows or Dak Bungalows later became the Inspection Bungalows for British Officers.
The recipe for preparing this dish varied with each cook at the Dak Bungalows depending on the availability of ingredients in a particular place as most Dak Bungalows or Inspections were on Trunk Roads and not in the vicinity of Grocery shop. The khansamas and cooks had to make do with whatever ingredients were on hand.)

Serves 6   Time required: 45 minutes
 1 medium sized chicken washed and cut into fairly big pieces
2 teaspoons ginger garlic paste
2 onions sliced finely
Salt to taste
2 teaspoons chillie powder
1 teaspoon cumin powder
1 teaspoon fennel powder
2 Dry Red Chillies broken into bits
2 tablespoons vinegar
2 tablespoons oil
 To Garnish
1 tablespoon butter
8 or 10 curry leaves fried in a little butter
1 large onion cut into thin rings

Marinate the chicken with all the ingredients mentioned above for an hour (except the ingredients for garnish).
Transfer to a suitable pan and cook on low heat till the chicken is tender and semi-dry.
Mix in a tablespoon of butter and let the dish rest for about 15 minutes before serving.
Garnish with fried curry leaves and raw onion rings.
Serve as a side dish with Dhal and Rice or a snack or appetizer

Note: Instead of frying t he chicken, it could be grilled in an oven. Arrange the pieces on a flat dish and grill for about half an hour in a hot oven. 

Wednesday, June 28, 2017


The Chicken Drumsticks are braised and roasted in a closed pan in this recipe so as that they are juicy and succulent and not dry.

Serves 6           Time required: 1 hour
6 Chicken Drumsticks 
2 teaspoons lime juice or vinegar
2 teaspoons chopped garlic
4 tablespoons Butter
Salt to taste
2 teaspoons crushed black pepper 
2 onions chopped into big chunks

Heat the butter in a suitable pan and add the chicken drumsticks and all the other ingredients.
Mix well and stir fry on high heat for a few minutes till the chicken changes colour. Now reduce the heat simmer on low heat in a closed pan till the chicken is tender and the water dries up.
Keep frying on low heat for a few more minutes till the chicken pieces are nicely browned. 
Serve with Mashed Potatoes, steamed vegetables and Bread.

Wednesday, May 3, 2017


 This simple Dessert could be made in hurry and requires just 6 ingredients 
Serves 6   Time Required: 45 minutes 
 1 litre full cream milk.
1 can sweet condensed milk
2 teaspoons corn flour or custard powder 
4 slices white bread
1 teaspoon vanilla or almond essence 
8 or 18 dried Apricots (stewed) and a few black currants 

1. Remove the crusts from the Bread and then cut each slice into one inch cubes. 
2. Mix the corn flour in ½ cup of cold milk till smooth. Keep aside.
3. Boil the milk and condensed milk together till the quantity reduces. Mix in the corn flour and milk mixture and the vanilla or almond essence and mix well. 
3. Simmer on low heat, stirring all the time till the mixture thickens.
4.  Mix in the bread cubes and remove from heat. 
5. Pour into a pretty glass dish 
6. Leave in the refrigerator to chill for a few hours before serving. 
7. Garnish with chopped stewed apricots and black currants 

Friday, April 28, 2017


Mulligatawny Soup
Mulligatawny Soup was actually the anglicized version of the Tamil “Melligu -Thani”. (“Melligu” meaning pepper and “Thani” meaning water). As the name suggests it was originally Pepper Water that took its origins in the Madras Presidency during the days of the Raj. However in course of time a lot of other ingredients such coconut, meat and other spices were added to give it a completely different flavour. The dish quickly became popular throughout the colonies of the Common Wealth. The Mulligatawny Soup of today bears little resemblance to the original ‘MELLIGU –THANI’
Mulligatawny Soup can be prepared with meat or poultry as per one's choice. In the olden days the left over beef bones (the meat was used for the curries and fries) were used in its preparation.
Attaching an old recipe for Mulligatawny Soup from the Original Madras Cookery Book. Here gram flour or Besan is made use of instead of Lentils or dal. Coconut is also one of the ingredients. This book is my prized possession as it was my Grandmother’s, then my mum’s. It was written by an ‘Unknown Resident’ and first published in 1874 by Higginbotham and Co Madras, and was reprinted for the 4th time in February 1901. I have the 1901 edition.

Recipe for Chicken  Mulligatawny
Serves 6
Time Required: 45 minutes to 1 hour
½ kg chicken (with the bones) chopped into medium size pieces
3 tablespoons Red Lentils / Masur Dhal 
1 teaspoon chillie powder
2 teaspoons pepper powder
1 teaspoon cumin powder
1 teaspoon coriander powder
1teaspoon crushed garlic
2 big onions sliced
1 cup coconut paste or coconut milk
1 tablespoon vinegar 
2 Bay leaves
2 pieces cinnamon bark (about one inch in size)
Salt to taste
1 tablespoon chopped fresh mint for garnishing 
Juice of 1 lime or lemon

Cook the chicken and all the ingredients with 6 to 8 cups of water in a large vessel on high heat till it reaches boiling point. Lower the heat and simmer for at least one hour till the soup is nice and thick. Garnish with mint or coriander leaves. Squeeze lime juice while still hot.

Serve with bread or rice.

Tuesday, April 18, 2017


 There is a certain glamour about Anglo-Indian cuisine with its quaint names like Railway Lamb Curry, Dak Bungalow Curry, Grandma’s Country Captain Chicken, etc. The names of these dishes, especially the ‘Railway Lamb Curry conjures up scenes of leisurely travel by train in the early 1900s  -  of tables covered with snow white table cloths laid with gleaming china and cutlery, of turbaned waiters and bearers serving this tasty slightly tangy Curry dish with Rolls and Crusty White Bread to the Aristocratic British and Indian Travelers in Railway Dining and Refreshment Rooms and in First Class Cabin Cars on long distance trains.
 Serves 3     Preparation Time 45 minutes to one hour
½ kg mutton or lamb cut into medium size pieces     
6 peppercorns
2 big onions sliced                
2 pieces cinnamon
2 cloves
2 cardamoms
8 to 10 curry leaves
4 red chilies broken into bits
1 teaspoon chillie powder
1 teaspoon ginger garlic paste
Salt to taste          
2 tablespoons oil
2 tablespoons vinegar or ½ cup of tamarind juice
Mix the lamb or mutton  with the ginger garlic paste, salt and the chillie powder.
Heat oil in a pan and fry the onions, curry leaves, red chillies and spices till golden brown.  
Add the meat and mix well.  Fry for a few minutes. Add the vinegar or Tamarind juice and sufficient water and cook on medium heat till the meat is done.
Simmer on low heat till the gravy is sufficiently thick and dark brown.

Note: You could substitute any meat for lamb / mutton if desired.

Saturday, April 15, 2017


Serves 6   Time required: 1 hour

1 chunk of pork weighing around 2 kg (rump or chump end)
3 whole potatoes peeled
3 whole red chillies broken into bits
1 teaspoon ground black pepper powder
1 teaspoon chillie powder   
1 teaspoon pepper corns
3 cloves
3 one inch pieces of cinamon
1 Bay leaf
 Salt to taste
2 tablespoons vinegar

Marinate the Pork with the salt, vinegar, chillie powder and ground black pepper. Place in a suitable pan or over proof dish together with the red chillies, peppercorns, spices, bay leaf and fry for 2 or 3   minutes on low heat. Add the whole potatoes and sufficient water. Simmer on low heat turning the pork around till nicely browned on all sides.(Alternately, the pork roast can be made in an oven)

Serve with Bread, Potato Mash and steamed vegetables. 

Wednesday, April 12, 2017


Good Friday is a day of fast and abstinence. Most Christians would have just one simple meal at mid day on Good friday. This Rice and Lentil Porridge / Gruel / Congee is normally prepared and eaten in most Christian Homes on Good Friday in India. I'm sharing this recipe for all those who would like to continue with the tradition of having this simple dish on Good Friday. 
Serves 6  preparation time 1 hour

1 cup Raw Rice
3  tablespoons Moong Dhal / Yellow Lentils 
¼ cup Sugar or Jaggery 
½ cup grated coconut or 1 cup coconut milk
2 tablespoons broken cashew nuts and raisins 
A pinch of salt

Wash the rice and soak it for half an hour in a little water. Dry roast the Moong Dhal lightly in a pan and take down.  Boil 3 cups of water and the salt in a suitable pan and when boiling add the rice and the roasted Moong Dhal. Cook on low heat till the rice and dhal are soft. Add the coconut, sugar/ jaggery and raisins and simmer for 4 to 5 minutes. The Congee should be of the consistency of thick soup. Serve plain or with Cocoanut chutney.  (omit the sugar or jaggery if desired)

This Congee is usually eaten on Good Friday

Sunday, April 9, 2017


This is an easy and simple dish to prepare.
Serves 6      Time required: 1 hour  

1 kg tender pork (belly portion) cut into cubes
2 green chillies sliced
3 onions sliced finely
2 teaspoons chopped garlic
1 teaspoon chopped ginger
2 teaspoons freshly ground black pepper /  pepper powder
Salt to taste

Cook the pork with a little salt and a pinch of turmeric in sufficient water till tender. Strain the soup and keep aside.
Heat the oil in a pan and sauté the onions, ginger, garlic, and green chillies till slightly brown. 
Add the cooked pork, pepper powder, and salt and fry for a few minutes. 
Add the left over soup / stock and mix well. 
Simmer on low heat till almost dry and dark in colour.

Sunday, March 26, 2017

COOKING CLASS OF POPULAR ANGLO-INDIAN DISHES - 1. Coconut Rice, Country Captain Chicken Curry, Brinjal / Aubergine Vindaloo, Bread Pudding



1. Coconut Rice

2. Country Captain Chicken Curry

3. Brinjal / Aubergine Vindaloo

4. Bread Pudding 

The fees would be Rs 2000/- per person. 


Friday, March 24, 2017



Fish Padda or Fish Pickle is an old Anglo-Indian favourite that was made in most homes in the olden days. The summer months are a good time to make this delightful, tangy, pungent fish pickle. It could be stored in the fridge for a long time as the vinegar helps to preserve it. It tastes awesome with just steamed rice and Pepper water or Dol Curry (Dhal) or eat it with chapattis or bread.
500 grams sardines or small mackerels or any other small fish cut into fairly big pieces
3 tablespoons chopped garlic
2 tablespoons chopped ginger
3 tablespoons chillie powder
1 teaspoon garlic paste
1 tablespoon cumin powder
½ teaspoon turmeric powder
1 teaspoon mustard powder
2 teacups vinegar
20 or 25 curry leaves
½ liter oil Sesame oil or mustard oil
Salt to taste

Marinate the fish with turmeric powder & salt for half an hour. Fry the fish lightly in either sesame oil or mustard oil, for 5-8 minutes. It should only be slightly crisp. Remove & keep aside.
In the same oil add the curry leaves, chopped ginger and garlic and fry for a few minutes. Mix in the garlic paste, chillie powder, cumin powder, mustard powder and salt and fry with a little vinegar till the oil separates from the mixtures and gives out a nice aroma. Add the rest of the vinegar and the fried fish and mix well . Simmer for 2 more minutes then take down.
Cool and store in bottles. This pickle will last for about 6 months.

Note; Instead of fresh fish, Salt fish can be used instead. 

Tuesday, March 21, 2017


Who doesn’t like Crispy Fish Fingers as an afternoon Treat? Fish Fingers are also known as Fish Sticks. Fish Fingers are very popular party or tea time snacks that are very easy to prepare. Fillets of boneless fish are lightly spiced then either dipped in batter or bread crumbs and deep fried. However, they could be shallow fried or baked if desired.

Serves 6    Time required: 45 minutes
½ kg boneless fish cut into strips or fillets
2 eggs beaten well
3 tablespoons refined flour or maida     
Salt to taste
1 teaspoon ground black pepper / pepper powder 
1 teaspoon chillie powder
1 teaspoon cumin powder   
3 Tablespoons Bread crumbs                
 Oil for deep frying

Wash the fish and pat dry with absorbent paper.
Mix the flour together with all the above ingredients (except the oil) with a little water to make a slightly thick batter. Coat each piece of fish well with the batter.
Heat oil in a pan till smoky. Roll each fish finger in the bread crumbs and fry till brown on both sides.
Drain and serve hot with tomato sauce or Tartar Sauce

Ps. Omit the bread crumbs if desired. 

Wednesday, March 15, 2017


(This spicy and tasty Egg Curry was prepared in the Dak Bungalows or Inspection Bungalows during the time of the Raj)

Serves 4      Preparation and Cooking Time 45 minutes
 4 or 6 Hard Boiled Eggs, shelled
1 teaspoon spice powder or garam masala powder
1 teaspoon chopped garlic                       
1 teaspoon chillie powder
3 onions sliced                                          
Salt to taste
3 green chillies                                         
½ teaspoon turmeric powder
½ teaspoon pepper powder                      
2 tablespoons oil
2 tomatoes chopped finely or pureed
½ cup curds /yogurt

Heat oil in a pan and fry the onions till light brown. Add all the other ingredients (except the boiled eggs) and stir fry for 2 or 3 minutes. Lower the heat, and add the hard boiled eggs. Simmer for about 6 more minutes. Remove from heat. The gravy should be quite thick. Serve with Chapattis / Rotis or white steamed rice.  

Saturday, March 11, 2017


½ kg meat (beef or mutton)                                           
2 or 3 medium size beetroots 
2 big onions chopped finely                                          
1 big tomatoes pureed
2 teaspoons chillie powder                                          
1/4  teaspoon turmeric powder
2 teaspoons coriander powder                                     
2-teaspoons ginger garlic paste
½ cup coconut paste or coconut milk (optional)                                                    
3 tablespoons oil
Salt to taste

Peel the beetroots and cut into pieces
Heat oil in a suitable pan or pressure cooker and fry the onions well. Add the ginger garlic paste and sauté lightly. Add the tomato puree, chillie powder, turmeric powder and coriander powder and fry for some time. Add the meat and the chopped beetroot and mix well. Continue frying for some time till the oil separates from the mixture. Add salt, coconut paste and 2 cups of water (or add more for and pressure cook till done. 
Serve with white steamed rice. 

Tuesday, March 7, 2017


Lt.  Colonel James Skinner or ‘Sikandar Sahib’ was the founder of the famous irregular cavalry known as Skinner’s Horse or the Yellow Boys, in the 18th century.. ‘Skinner’s Horse turned out to be one of the finest regiments of the British and later the Indian Army. Lt. Col Skinner was decorated with the ‘Knight of the Order of the Bath’ by Her Majesty’s Government. Skinner’s Horse Regiment , was renamed the 1st Bengal Cavalry and then again renamed as the The Bengal Lancers. This Prawn / Shrimp purportedly originated in this Army Regiment Mess and was later incorporated in the menus of the other Regimental Messes during the time of the Raj.
Serves 6   Preparation and cooking Time 45 minutes

1 kg medium size Shrimps / Prawns cleaned and de-veined
3 tomatoes chopped
3 onions sliced finely
2 teaspoons chillie powder
½ teaspoon turmeric powder
1 teaspoon cumin powder
1 teaspoon coriander powder (optional)
Salt to taste
1 teaspoon garlic paste
1 teaspoon ginger paste
3 tablespoons oil
2 tablespoons vinegar

Marinate the shrimps / prawns with the chillie powder, turmeric powder, cumin powder, coriander powder, vinegar and salt and keep aside for 15 minutes.
Heat oil in a pan and fry the onions till golden brown. Add the garlic paste, ginger paste and tomatoes and fry till the tomatoes turn pulpy. Add the marinated prawns / shrimps and mix well. Add 1 cup of water and cook on medium heat for about 20 minutes till the prawns / shrimps are cooked. Serve with rice, Bread or Chapattis.

Monday, February 27, 2017


Shrove Tuesday or Pancake Tuesday is the Tuesday before Ash Wednesday, i.e. the day before the commencement of the season of Lent leading up to Easter Sunday. Lent is a time of fast and abstinence and of making sacrifices and giving things up. The Church liturgy laid much emphasis on eating very plain food and refraining from food that would give pleasure during the period of lent. In many cultures, this meant no meat, dairy, or eggs. 
So in earlier times, Shrove Tuesday became the last chance for people to indulge themselves in good food on the Tuesday before Ash Wednesday and to make use of the items of foods that were not allowed during Lent. In the United Kingdom and Ireland, Shrove Tuesday is more commonly known as Pancake Tuesday or Pancake Day, as it is customary to eat PANCAKES on this day. Pancakes thus became associated with the day preceding Lent, because it was a way to use up all the rich foodstuffs in the house such as eggs, milk, and sugar, before the fasting season of the 40 days of Lent began.

Serves 2 
Preparation time 30 minutes
1cup flour all purpose flour (maida)                       
2 eggs beaten well
2 tablespoons sugar                   
½ teaspoon vanilla essence
1 tablespoon butter or ghee       
½ teaspoon salt
¼ teaspoon baking powder   
1 cup finely chopped apple      
1 cup milk

Mix all the ingredients together to get a thin smooth batter without lumps. Heat a non- stick frying pan. When hot wipe all over with a piece of cloth dipped in a little oil. Pour a ladle of batter in the pan with a swirling motion and then shake the pan so that the entire pan is covered. Cook on both sides and remove. Serve hot with Jam or honey and sliced apples for filling 

For other Fruit Pan cakes, add finely chopped fruit such as banana, pineapple, etc., to the batter and make the pancakes as above.